Meet the Animals

Discovering Alaska’s Oldest Cities: History Culture and Natural Wonders

Introduction to Alaska

Alaska, the largest state in the United States, is a land of awe-inspiring landscapes, rich history, and unique cultures. With its vast wilderness and sparse population, it is a place like no other.

In this article, we will delve into the size and population of Alaska, as well as its intriguing history and diverse culture. We will also explore the oldest cities in Alaska and their historical significance.

Size and Population of Alaska

Alaska is the largest state in the United States, covering an area of approximately 665,384 square miles. To put this into perspective, it is more than twice the size of Texas, the second-largest state.

Despite its massive size, Alaska is the least populated state, with a population of around 731,545 people.

The largest city in Alaska is Anchorage, with a population of approximately 291,538.

It is followed by Fairbanks, Juneau, and Sitka, with populations of 31,535, 31,275, and 8,881, respectively. These four cities are the most populous in the state and serve as economic and cultural hubs.

They offer a taste of modernity amidst the rugged beauty of Alaska’s wilderness.

History and Culture of Alaska

Before the arrival of European explorers, Alaska was occupied by numerous indigenous tribes, each with their distinct languages and customs. The Aleut, Inupiat, and Tlingit tribes are among the most well-known Native American groups in Alaska.

These tribes relied on fishing, hunting, and gathering for their sustenance, using the abundant natural resources offered by the land and sea. In the 18th century, Russian explorers arrived in Alaska, establishing settlements and trading posts along the coast.

The most important of these Russian settlements was Sitka, which served as the capital of Russian America. The Russian presence in Alaska lasted for over a century until the United States purchased the territory from Russia in 1867.

This acquisition, known as the Alaska Purchase, marked a significant turning point in Alaska’s history. In 1959, Alaska became the 49th state of the United States.

The road to statehood was not an easy one, as it faced numerous challenges and debates. However, the rich resources of Alaska, such as oil, eventually made it an attractive addition to the United States.

Overview of Alaska’s Oldest Cities

Alaska is home to 149 incorporated cities, with a diverse distribution across its vast landscape. While these cities make up only 2.1% of the state’s total land area, they are home to approximately 65% of Alaska’s population.

This disparity is a testament to the wild and untamed nature of much of Alaska’s land. The oldest cities in Alaska hold a special place in the state’s history.

These cities were established long before Alaska became a part of the United States and offer a glimpse into the past. One such city is Sitka, the former capital of Russian America.

Sitka was first settled by the Tlingit people and was known as Shee Atik, meaning “People on the Outside of Shee.” The Russian presence in Sitka began in 1799 when Alexander Baranov, the chief manager of the Russian-American Company, established a trading post on the island. Today, Sitka’s rich history is visible in its architecture, art, and cultural traditions.

Another historically significant city is Juneau, the current capital of Alaska. Founded during the gold rush of the late 19th century, Juneau played a vital role in Alaska’s development.

Although Juneau is only accessible by boat or plane, it has grown into a vibrant community, boasting museums, galleries, and a thriving arts scene.


Alaska, with its vast size, sparse population, and rich history, holds a special place in the United States. Its largest cities offer a glimpse into modern life amidst the wilderness, while its oldest cities remind us of the state’s ancient roots.

Whether exploring the vast landscapes or immersing oneself in the diverse cultures, Alaska offers a truly unique experience. So, pack your bags and venture forth into the last frontier!

Sitka: A Captivating Blend of History and Natural Beauty

Situated on Baranof Island, nestled between the snow-capped peaks of the Alaska Range and the pristine waters of the Pacific Ocean, lies the charming city of Sitka.

With a rich history harkening back to its days as the Russian capital of Alaska, Sitka offers visitors a truly unique experience. From its fascinating past to its stunning natural attractions, this coastal town captivates the imagination and leaves an indelible mark on all who visit.

Founding and History of Sitka

The history of Sitka dates back to the late 18th century when the Russian American Company, under the leadership of Alexander Baranov, established a trading post on the island in 1799. Baranov recognized the strategic importance of Sitka’s location, as it provided easy access to the abundant sea otter populations and valuable fur trade.

The settlement flourished and eventually became the capital of Russian America. However, in 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia in what became known as the Alaska Purchase.

Sitka’s days as the capital came to an end, and it transitioned into a center for fishing, canning, and to this day, retains its strong Native American heritage.

Unique Characteristics and Attractions of Sitka

As you wander the streets of Sitka, you can’t help but be enamored by the unique blend of cultures and the stunning natural beauty that surrounds you. One of the city’s most iconic landmarks is St. Michael’s Cathedral, a beautiful Russian Orthodox church that stands as a testament to Sitka’s Russian heritage.

Its stunning onion domes and intricate artwork draw visitors from near and far, providing a glimpse into the city’s storied past. Sitka’s coastal setting is another mesmerizing feature that sets it apart.

The city is blessed with a picturesque waterfront that offers breathtaking views of the surrounding islands and mountains. From the Old Sitka State Historical Park to the Sitka Seawalk, visitors can immerse themselves in the beauty of the Pacific Ocean while enjoying scenic walks and encountering fascinating wildlife, including sea otters, bald eagles, and even humpback whales during the migratory season.

For nature enthusiasts, a visit to Tongass National Forest is a must. As the largest national forest in the United States, Tongass encompasses a staggering 16.7 million acres of pristine wilderness, complete with towering Sitka spruce trees, stunning fjords, and abundant wildlife.

Hiking, boating, and fishing are just a few of the outdoor activities that await those who venture into this untouched paradise. Kodiak: Where Culture and Nature Coalesce

Located on Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska, the city of Kodiak is a fascinating blend of Russian influence, Native American heritage, and a thriving fishing industry.

As one of Alaska’s oldest continuously inhabited communities, Kodiak is steeped in history and offers visitors a glimpse into the past while celebrating its vibrant cultural traditions.

Founding and History of Kodiak

Kodiak’s history can be traced back over 7,000 years to the earliest Native American settlements. The Alutiiq people have inhabited the region for millennia, relying on the abundant resources of the land and sea for their sustenance and cultural practices.

Their influence can still be seen and felt in Kodiak today. In the late 18th century, Russian fur traders arrived on Kodiak Island, establishing a trading post and fortifying the area to protect their interests.

The Russian presence lasted for several decades, resulting in a blending of Russian and Native Alutiiq cultures. Today, remnants of this period can be explored at the Alutiiq Museum, where exhibits showcase the history, art, and traditions of the indigenous people.

Culture and Economic Activities in Kodiak

Kodiak’s rich cultural heritage is celebrated through various festivals and events held throughout the year. The Kodiak Crab Festival, held every Memorial Day weekend, is a highlight for both locals and visitors alike.

This vibrant event features live music, delicious seafood, carnival rides, and a famous crab leg eating contest. The fishing industry is the lifeblood of Kodiak, supporting the local economy and shaping the city’s culture.

Commercial fishing, particularly for salmon, crab, and halibut, plays a major role in the daily lives of its residents. The annual arrival of the sockeye salmon run, known as the “red tide,” brings a flurry of activity to the city as fishermen gear up for the season.

Beyond its cultural and economic activities, Kodiak boasts a breathtaking natural landscape that is unparalleled. The Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, established to protect the Kodiak brown bear population, spans over 1.9 million acres of land and offers visitors the opportunity to witness these majestic creatures in their natural habitat.

Whether hiking through the wilderness or kayaking along the rugged coastline, Kodiak’s natural wonders are sure to leave a lasting impression. In


Sitka and Kodiak are two of Alaska’s oldest cities, each offering a unique glimpse into the state’s rich history and culture.

Sitka, with its Russian influence and stunning natural beauty, captivates visitors with its blend of heritage and grandeur. Kodiak, on the other hand, celebrates the Alutiiq people and their deep-rooted connections to the land and sea, all while embracing its thriving fishing industry.

Together, these cities embody the essence of Alaska – a land where ancient traditions and awe-inspiring landscapes converge. Juneau: Where History and Adventure Collide

Nestled between majestic mountains and surrounded by pristine waters, Juneau, the capital of Alaska, is a city that seamlessly blends history with outdoor adventure.

From its humble beginnings as a gold rush town to its thriving fishing and tourism industries, Juneau offers visitors a unique glimpse in

to Alaska’s past while providing a gateway to its breathtaking natural attractions.

Founding and History of Juneau

The history of Juneau is intertwined with the statehood of Alaska itself. After the Alaska Purchase in 1867, when Sitka lost its status as the capital, the territorial government sought a new location for its seat of power.

It was then that prospectors Joe Juneau and Richard Harris discovered gold in the area, giving rise to the city that would eventually bear Juneau’s name. Juneau’s history extends beyond its gold-rush origins.

Before the arrival of Russian explorers, the area was inhabited by the Tlingit people. The Tlingit had a strong presence along the Gastineau Channel, utilizing the region’s abundant resources for trade and sustenance.

Today, their cultural influence can still be felt and appreciated in Juneau’s art, traditional performances, and historical sites.

Economic Activities and Outdoor Attractions in Juneau

Juneau’s diverse economy is driven by two main industries: fishing and tourism. The city serves as a hub for commercial fishing, particularly for salmon and halibut.

The annual salmon runs bring a flurry of activity, with fishermen vying for their catch as the fish make their way upriver to spawn. It is not uncommon to see fishing boats dotting the waterways, a testament to Juneau’s importance in the seafood industry.

Tourism also plays a significant role in Juneau’s economy, attracting visitors from all over the world. The city’s magnificent natural landscapes and rich wildlife offer countless opportunities for outdoor adventure.

One of the most popular activities is whale watching, as Juneau is located in the heart of the Inside Passage, a renowned breeding ground for humpback whales. Witnessing these majestic creatures breach the surface is an awe-inspiring experience that leaves visitors with lasting memories.

For those seeking a more active adventure, Juneau’s mountains and forests provide ample opportunities for hiking, biking, and even zip-lining through the treetops. Trails meander through the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States, offering stunning views of glaciers, waterfalls, and wildlife.

The Mendenhall Glacier, a massive ice sheet spanning 13.6 miles, is another iconic attraction that draws visitors to Juneau. Its awe-inspiring beauty is a reminder of the power and majesty of nature.

Ketchikan: The Salmon Capital of the World

Located on Revillagigedo Island, Ketchikan has long been a vital trading post and gateway to the Inside Passage. Surrounded by lush rainforests and nestled between the sea and mountains, this vibrant city offers a unique blend of history, natural beauty, and outdoor activities.

Location and Significance of Ketchikan

Ketchikan’s strategic location along the Inside Passage made it an important center for trade and transportation. Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was inhabited by the Native Tlingit people, who utilized the abundant salmon runs for sustenance and commerce.

Today, Ketchikan proudly celebrates its indigenous heritage, and visitors have the opportunity to learn about Tlingit culture at the Totem Heritage Center and Saxman Native Village.

Unique Features and Activities in Ketchikan

Ketchikan is known as the “Salmon Capital of the World” for a reason. Every summer, all five species of Pacific salmon return to the region’s streams to spawn, creating a spectacle of nature that is both mesmerizing and awe-inspiring.

Anglers from around the world flock to Ketchikan for the chance to reel in these prized fish, making it a popular destination for sport fishing. One of the iconic attractions in Ketchikan is historic Creek Street, a boardwalk perched high above Ketchikan Creek.

Once a bustling red-light district during the gold rush era, today it is lined with quirky shops, boutiques, and art galleries. Visitors can explore the rich history of the area while admiring the vibrant buildings and lush surroundings.

For nature enthusiasts, Misty Fjords National Monument is a must-visit destination. Accessible by boat or floatplane, this pristine wilderness enchants visitors with its towering cliffs, cascading waterfalls, and serene fjords.

Kayaking through the quiet waters or embarking on a flightseeing tour offers a unique perspective on the grandeur of this remote and untouched land. In


Juneau and Ketchikan, two vibrant cities in Southeast Alaska, offer a captivating blend of history, nature, and adventure.

Juneau, with its gold-rush past and stunning landscapes, draws visitors with its rich tapestry of cultural heritage and opportunities for outdoor exploration. Ketchikan, on the other hand, delights visitors with its vibrant fishing industry, indigenous history, and access to the breathtaking beauty of Misty Fjords.

As gateways to Southeast Alaska, these cities embody the spirit of the Last Frontier and leave a lasting impression on all who visit. Wrangell: A Tapestry of History and Natural Beauty

Nestled on the northern tip of Wrangell Island in Southeast Alaska, the city of Wrangell is a captivating destination that seamlessly melds its rich historical background with the stunning natural beauty that surrounds it.

From its diverse cultural heritage to its array of recreational activities, Wrangell offers visitors a unique and unforgettable experience.

Historical Background and Cultural Diversity in Wrangell

Wrangell’s history is deeply intertwined with the Tlingit people who have called this area home for thousands of years. The Tlingit Nation has a strong presence in Wrangell and continues to preserve and celebrate its vibrant cultural traditions.

Visitors to Wrangell have the opportunity to immerse themselves in Tlingit art, traditional performances, and the rich oral history of the region. Another layer of Wrangell’s history unfolds with the arrival of Russian explorers in the 19th century.

The Russians established a fur trading post in the area, which led to increased interactions between the Tlingit and Russian communities. However, with the sale of Alaska to the United States in 1867, American influence became prominent, marking a new era for Wrangell.

In addition to the Tlingit, Russian, and American influences, Wrangell is also home to the diverse Indigenous communities of the Stikine River Indians. These communities add yet another layer of cultural richness, showcasing the incredible diversity that exists within Wrangell.

Natural Attractions and Recreational Activities in Wrangell

Nature enthusiasts will find themselves in paradise in Wrangell. One of the most notable natural attractions is the mighty Stikine River.

Known as the “River of the Stikine,” it is one of the last great wild rivers in North America. Its pristine waters and breathtaking scenery make it a popular destination for rafting, kayaking, and wildlife viewing.

The Stikine River is a haven for bald eagles, bears, moose, and a variety of other wildlife, providing ample opportunities for birdwatching and photography enthusiasts. Wrangell is also a fantastic destination for fishing enthusiasts.

The area boasts an abundance of salmon, halibut, and trout, making it a haven for anglers seeking world-class fishing experiences. Whether casting a line from the shores or venturing out into the open water on a chartered fishing excursion, the waters surrounding Wrangell offer ample opportunities for a memorable day on the water.

Hikers and outdoor adventurers will be delighted by the array of trails and wilderness areas that Wrangell has to offer. With its lush rainforests, towering Sitka spruce trees, and panoramic views, Wrangell provides a breathtaking backdrop for a variety of hiking adventures.

From the popular Rainbow Falls Trail to the challenging Mount Dewey Trail, there is a trail for every skill level and desire for exploration. In


Wrangell, with its rich cultural heritage and stunning natural surroundings, offers a truly immersive experience.

From the indigenous Tlingit people to the Russian and American influence, the city is a tapestry of history and cultural diversity. The majestic Stikine River, abundant wildlife, and ample opportunities for fishing, birdwatching, and hiking make Wrangell a paradise for outdoor enthusiasts.

As you explore the wonders of Wrangell, you will discover a city that is deeply rooted in its past while embracing the beauty of its present. Haines: Where History Meets Scenic Beauty

Nestled along the shores of the Chilkat Peninsula in Southeast Alaska, the small town of Haines offers visitors a remarkable blend of history and breathtaking natural beauty.

From its significant role in the Klondike Gold Rush to its stunning landscapes and abundant recreational opportunities, Haines is a destination that inspires both awe and a sense of adventure.

History and Significance of Haines

Haines holds a significant place in Alaska’s history, particularly during the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 19th century. As the first port of entry in

to Alaska for gold seekers heading to the Klondike region, Haines served as a supply center and a gateway to the goldfields.

The town bustled with activity as prospectors, known as “stampeders,” arrived by the boatload, looking for their fortunes. Beyond the gold rush era, Haines also has deep ties to the Tlingit people.

For centuries, it served as a prominent trade route and gathering place for the Tlingit communities, connecting them to other indigenous groups across the region. Today, Haines celebrates and honors the rich cultural heritage of the Tlingit through traditional art forms, performances, and storytelling.

Scenic Beauty and Recreational Opportunities in Haines

Haines entices visitors with its rugged landscapes, rich wildlife, and an array of outdoor activities. The small-town charm of the community is complemented by the stunning scenery that surrounds it, making it a haven for nature enthusiasts and adventure seekers.

Hiking is a popular activity in the area, with trails leading through towering forests, along dramatic coastlines, and up breathtaking mountain peaks. The Chilkoot Lake State Recreation Site, with its vibrant turquoise waters and panoramic views, offers a range of hiking trails suitable for all skill levels.

One of the highlights is the Battery Point Trail, which takes hikers through coastal rainforests, leading to an enchanting beach that overlooks the inlet and offers a chance to spot wildlife. For those seeking a water-based adventure, kayaking is the perfect way to explore the serene waterways surrounding Haines.

Paddlers can navigate through narrow channels, observing the diverse marine life that calls these waters home. The Chilkat River and Chilkoot Lake are popular spots for kayaking, with opportunities to witness the majestic beauty of glaciers, cascading waterfalls, and an abundance of wildlife, including bald eagles and seals.

An extraordinary event that draws visitors from around the world is the annual Alaska Bald Eagle Festival. Held in November, this festival celebrates the large concentration of bald eagles that gather in the area to feed on the abundant salmon runs.

Visitors have the opportunity to witness the incredible sight of hundreds of eagles congregating along the rivers and learn about their natural history and conservation efforts. In


Haines, with its rich history and stunning landscapes, is a destination like no other.

From its significant role in the Klondike Gold Rush to its celebration of Tlingit cultural heritage, the town offers a captivating journey in

to Alaska’s past. The rugged beauty of Haines is complemented by an abundance of recreational opportunities, from hiking through towering forests to kayaking through pristine waterways.

Whether immersing oneself in history or exploring the awe-inspiring outdoors, Haines beckons travelers with open arms, inviting them to discover the wonders of this remarkable Alaskan town.

Skagway: Where the Past Comes Alive

Tucked away in the northern reaches of Southeast Alaska, the town of Skagway tells the captivating tale of the Klondike Gold Rush with its preserved historic buildings, cultural events, and stunning natural beauty.

A trip to Skagway is like stepping back in time, offering visitors a glimpse into the challenges and triumphs of the gold rush era while providing a gateway to unforgettable outdoor adventures.

Gold Rush History and Cultural Events in Skagway

Skagway played a pivotal role during the Klondike Gold Rush of the late 19th century, serving as a major gateway for prospectors on their journey to the goldfields. The town boomed with activity as an influx of people arrived, all in pursuit of the glittering promise of gold.

Today, the streets of Skagway are lined with meticulously preserved buildings that harken back to that vibrant era, transporting visitors back in time. To further immerse oneself in the gold rush experience, Skagway offers a variety of cultural events that bring the past to life.

The Days of ’98 Show is a legendary theatrical performance that tells the stories of the gold rush through song, dance, and drama. This captivating production, performed by talented actors and actresses, captures the spirit and adventure of the Klondike era, leaving the audience with a taste of the excitement that once electrified Skagway’s streets.

Tourist Attractions and Outdoor Activities in Skagway

Skagway is not only a town rich in history but also a paradise for outdoor enthusiasts. The surrounding natural beauty mesmerizes visitors with its snow-capped mountains, crystal-clear lakes, and majestic glaciers.

A must-visit attraction in Skagway is the Skagway Museum, which showcases the town’s captivating history and provides a comprehensive understanding of the Klondike Gold Rush. Visitors can delve deep into the stories of the gold seekers and the challenges they faced, examining artifacts and photographs that evoke the spirit of this transformative era.

For a truly unforgettable experience, hop aboard the White Pass and Yukon Route Railroad, a marvel of engineering that was once a lifeline for gold rush stampeders. This historic narrow-gauge railroad takes passengers on a breathtaking journey through rugged mountain terrain, over stunning trestle bridges, and past cascading waterfalls.

The panoramic views from the train’s vintage cars offer glimpses of Alaska’s unspoiled beauty that are simply awe-inspiring. Outdoor adventurers will find ample opportunities to explore Skagway’s remarkable surroundings.

Numerous hiking trails wind through the nearby Chilkoot and White Pass areas, offering stunning vistas of alpine meadows, shimmering lakes, and ancient glaciers. Backpacking excursions provide the opportunity to explore the rugged wilderness, following in the footsteps of the gold seekers who braved these challenging landscapes over a century ago.



Skagway, with its rich gold rush history, preserved architecture, and unparalleled natural beauty, captures the essence of the Klondike Gold Rush era. Stepping onto its charming streets feels like stepping back in time, immersing visitors in the spirit of adventure and hope that once filled the air.

Whether exploring Skagway’s meticulously preserved buildings, relishing captivating cultural events, or embarking on thrilling outdoor adventures, a visit to Skagway promises an unforgettable experience that illuminates Alaska’s wild past. Alaska’s oldest cities, such as Sitka, Kodiak, Juneau, Ketchikan, Wrangell, Haines, and Skagway, are steeped in rich history, cultural diversity, and stunning natural beauty.

From the Russian influence in Sitka to the gold rush heritage of Skagway, these cities offer a captivating journey in

to Alaska’s past. Amidst the small-town charm, visitors can immerse themselves in indigenous cultures, explore breathtaking landscapes, and engage in a myriad of outdoor activities.

The takeaways from these remarkable destinations are the enduring spirit of adventure, the preservation of cultural heritage, and the awe-inspiring power of nature. Whether exploring ancient traditions or hiking through untouched wilderness, these cities offer a profound connection

to Alaska’s past and leave an indelible mark on all who encounter them.

Popular Posts